Footnote 2

Partners in Flight (PIF) was begun in 1990 as a result of concerns about declines in land bird populations. Because many birds migrate across national and geographical borders, the program is international in scope. According to Partners in Flight's website, "The central premise . . . has been that the resources of public and private organizations in North and South America must be combined, coordinated, and increased in order to achieve success in conserving bird populations in this hemisphere." To this end, PIF has become "a cooperative effort involving partnerships among federal, state and local government agencies, philanthropic foundations, professional organizations, conservation groups, industry, the academic community, and private individuals." The Department of Defense is one of PIF's more active collaborators. For more information, see and, for DoD's participation, see

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